Kejenuhan

Pernahkah Anda mengalami suatu suasana yang membuat anda tidak tertarik untuk melakukan suatu pekerjaan atau aktivitas apapun juga? Atau pernahkah Anda merasa bahwa apapun yang anda miliki saat ini entah itu pekerjaan, keluarga, sahabat, pacar atau pasangan hidup hanya membuat anda merasa penat bahakan bosan? Tahukah Anda bila Anda sudah mengalami perasaan seperti tersebut berarti Anda sedang mengalami suatu suasana hati yang dinamakan kejenuhan (boredom).
Apakah itu kejenuhan?
Kejenuhan merupakan suatu suasana hati ketika seseorang sudah tidak tertarik atau mulai kehilangan minat atau tidak dapat menikmati lagi aktivitas, pekerjaan, hubungan sosial, lingkungan atau atau apapun juga dalam kehidupannya.
Apa Penyebabnya?
1. Kelelahan (Burn Out )
Pekerjaan atau aktivitas yang menguras energi baik secara fisik maupun psikis akan mengakibatkan manusia mengalami kelelahan fisik maupun psikis. Kelelahan yang berjalan secara terus menerus akan mengakibatkan seorang individu terjebak dalam suatu kepenatan yang dapat bermuara pada ketidakmampuan untuk menikmati pekerjaan. Bila sudah tidak ada kenikmatan dalam bekerja maka yang terjadi biasanya akan muncul kejenuhan.
2. Kemonotonan
Ketika manusia melakukan suatu pekerjaan atau aktivitas yang berulang-ulang dan tidak ada dinamika di dalam aktivitas tersebut maka dapat dipastikan aktivitas tersebut akan tidak menarik lagi. Pekerjaan tersebut kemudian hanya bersifat rutinitas tanpa melibatkan adanya unsur emosional positif seperti rasa suka, kepuasan atau kebahagian di dalamnya.
Atau ketika seorang individu terlibat dalam suatu pekerjaan atau aktivitas dalam jangka waktu yang lama maka pekerjaan atau aktivitas tersebut tentunya akan rentan menjadi monoton
Apa Akibat Kejenuhan?
1. Menurunnya Efiktivitas dalam Bekerja
Bila seorang individu sudah mengalami suatu kejenuhan dalam pekerjaan atau aktivitasnya maka biasanya hal tersebut akan berpengaruh pada kinerjanya. Hal tersebut disebabkan oleh karena ia sudah mulai tidak tertarik pada pekerjaan atau aktivitas tersebut sehingga biasanya kinerjanya akan menurun.
2. Timbulnya Masalah dalam Suatu Hubungan
Bila dalam suatu hubungan terjadi kejenuhan, maka hal ini merupakan suatu gerbang untuk kemunculan masalah-masalah berikutnya. Kejenuhan dapat memicu pasangan sahabat, kekasih, atau bahkan pasangan suami istri terlibat dalam suatu konflik atau pertengkaran. Bahkan tak jarang kejenuhan dapat membuat seseorang terlibat dalam suatu perselingkuhan.
3. Depresi
Kejenuhan bilamana dibiarkan berkarut-larut tanpa adanya penanganan yang memadai maka hal tersebut akan dapat mempengaruhi cara pandang seseorang pada seluruh aspek kehidupan. Kejenuhan yang sudah kronis akan membuat seseorang bahkan merasa jenuh untuk hidup, hal inilah salah satu hal yang dapat memicu munculnya depresi.
Bagaimana cara mengatasinya?
Ada beberapa cara yang dapat ditempuh untuk dapat mengatasi kejenuhan.
1. Berdoa dan Meditasi
Salah satu hal yang mulai ditinggalkan oleh manusia pada zaman modern ini adalah menjaga kualitas hubungan Spiritual dengan Sang Pencipta. Berapa baik kualitas hubungan Spiritual sesorang individu tidak dipengaruhi oleh berapa sering dia melakukan kewajiban ibadahnya. Kualitas hubungan Spiritual lebih dipengaruhi seberapa baik individu tersebut menikmati hubungan tersebuat.
Berdoa dan bermeditasi adalah suatu hal yang berjalan bersama. Ketika berdoa perlu adanya pemusatan pikiran dan perasaan yang ditujukan pada Sang Pencipta. Ketika pikiran dan perasaan dipusatkan kepada Sang Pencipta maka individu tersebut secara otomatis sedang membuka hatinya untuk berkomunikasi kepada Sang Pencipta. Bila doa sudah disertai keterbukaan hati maka kenikmatan dalam berdoa dapat dirasakan. Jadi mulailah membiasakan berdoa disertai meditasi untuk mengatasi kejenuhan.
2. Luangkan Waktu untuk Rekreasi
Bila mendengar kata rekreasi biasanya yang terlintas dalam pikiran kita suatu kegiatan yang memerlukan biaya yang besar. Rekreasi tidak perlu diidentikkan dengan kegiatan yang memerlukan biaya yang besar. Rekreasi dengan biaya murah atau bahkan tanpa biaya alias gratis dapat kita lakukan. Cobalah rekreasi dengan berjalan kaki setiap pagi sebelum banyak orang melakukan aktivitas, atau cobalah pergi ke Pantai atau tempat yang memiliki keindahan yang dapat menyegarkan pikiran Anda. Pilihlah lokasi yang dapat Anda jangkau. Dan ingatlah bahwa kualitas dalam rekreasi bukan terletak pada tempat, jenis atau besar kecilnya biaya tetapi lebih terletak pada kemampuan Anda dalam melihat unsur menarik dan kenikmatannya.
3. Lakukan Kegiatan Baru
Cobalah melakukan kegiatan baru yang bersifat positif yang selama ini jarang atau belum pernah Anda lakukan. Bagi Anda yang tidak pernah berolah raga cobalah olah raga. Bagi Anda yang belum pernah melakukan pelayanan sosial seperti menjenguk orang sakit cobalah untuk melakukannya. Atau kegiatan lain yang selama ini belum pernah Anda lakukan cobalah untuk lakukan dan temukan kenikmatannya bahkan tantangannya.
4. Bersahabat dengan Humor
Mungkin Anda pernah mendengar jargon milik grup lawak Warkop DKI “ Tertawalah Sebelum Tertawa itu Dilarang”. Memang jargon itu kalau direnungkan sangat benar. Pernahkah Anda membayangkan apa jadinya dunia ini tanpa Humor atau tertawa. Pasti segala sesuatu akan jadi kaku bahkan mungkin otot wajah Anda kalau tidak Anda biasakan tertawa pasti akan menjadi kaku. Humor akan sangat bermanfaat untuk menghilangkan kejenuhan bahkan untuk meberi warna dalam kehidupan manusia. Cobalah untuk membaca bacaan-bacaan, atau menonton pertunjukan pertunjukan yang berisi humor. Atau belajarlah untuk membuat humor kecil bagi diri Anda sendiri. Caranya, cobalah lihat dicermin dan perhatikan mimik wajah Anda ketika Anda tidak tersenyum dan coba temukan keanehaan pada wajah Anda pasti Anda akan tersenyum atau bahkan tertawa melihat mimik wajah Anda yang kaku tanpa senyum. Bahkan ada ungkapan bijak mengatakan bahwa orang yang sehat adalah orang yang mampu mentertawakan dirinya sendiri dengan demikian orang tersebut dapat melihat dirinya secara obyektif karena dia bisa melihat kekurangannya sendiri dari sudut pandang bersahabat yang kemudian akan memperbaikinya. Jadi cobalah untuk bersahabat dengan Humor.
5. Melihat Kelebihan, Bukan Kekurangan
Alasan yang membuat seorang individu menjadi jenuh dalam suatu hubungan sebenarnya disebabkan oleh lebih seringnya dia melihat kekurangan dari keluarga, sahabat, kekasih atau pasangannya. Cobalah untuk membiasakan berfokus pada kelebihan orang lain bahkan ketika seseorang memiliki kekurangan, itu juga merupakan bagian dari kelebihannya untuk dapat membuat Anda tertantang untuk membantunya dalam memperbaiki kekurangan tersebut.
6. Melihat Hidup sebagai Suatu Tantangan
Ketika seseorang hanya melihat hidup sebagai sesuatu yang monoton atau ketika ia menghadapi masalah dan merasa bosan dengan masalah yang selalu datang maka Individu tersebut belum belajar untuk melihat hidup ini sebagai suatu tantangan yang selalu menarik untuk ditaklukan. Timbulkanlah pola dalam pemikiran Anda bahwa segala sesuatu yang terjadi dengan diri kita entah itu pekerjaan atau masalah yang datang menjadi suatu tantangan yang menarik dan Anda mampu untuk menaklukannya.
Semoga ulasan tentang kejenuhan di atas dapat bermanfaat. Last but not least yang menjadi kunci untuk menghilangkan kejenuhan Anda bukan terletak pada orang lain atau lingkungan Anda tetapi terletak pada diri Anda.
Good Luck and GOD Bless

The stages of cognitive development by Jean Piaget

abi-di-duri-260113.jpg    Piaget’s ‘Four levels of development’ are (1) infancy, (2) preschool, (3) childhood, and (4) adolescence. Each stage is characterized by a general cognitive structure that affects all of the child’s thinking (a structuralist view influenced by philosopher Immanuel Kant) Each stage represents the child’s understanding of reality during that period, and each but the last is an inadequate approximation of reality. Development from one stage to the next is thus caused by the accumulation of errors in the child’s understanding of the environment; this accumulation eventually causes such a degree of cognitive disequilibrium that thought structures require reorganizing.

The four development stages are described in Piaget’s theory as:

  1. Sensori Motori Stages : from birth to age 2. Children experience the world through movement and senses (use five senses to explore the world). During the sensorimotor stage children are extremely egocentric, meaning they cannot perceive the world from others viewpoints and explore using senses. The sensorimotor stage is divided into six substages: “(1) simple reflexes; (2) first habits and primary circular reactions; (3) secondary circular reactions; (4) coordination of secondary circular reactions; (5) tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity; and (6) internalization of schemes.” Simple reflexes is from birth to 1 month old. At this time infants use reflexes such as rooting and sucking. First habits and primary circular reactions is from 1 month to 4 months old. During this time infants learn to coordinate sensation and two types of scheme (habit and circular reactions). A primary circular reaction is when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident (ex: sucking thumb). The third stage, secondary circular reactions, occurs when the infant is 4 to 8 months old. At this time they become aware of things beyond their own body; they are more object oriented. At this time they might accidentally shake a rattle and continue to do it for sake of satisfaction. Coordination of secondary circular reactions is from 8 months to 12 months old. During this stage they can do things intentionally. They can now combine and recombine schemes and try to reach a goal (ex: use a stick to reach something). They also understand object permanence during this stage. That is, they understand that objects continue to exist even when they can’t see them. The fifth stage occurs from 12 months old to 18 months old. During this stage infants explore new possibilities of objects; they try different things to get different results. During the last stage they are 18 to 24 months old. During this stage they shift to symbolic thinking.
  2. Preoperational Stage: from ages 2 to 5 (magical thinking predominates. Acquisition of motor skills) Egocentricism begins strongly and then weakens. Children cannot conserve or use logical thinking.
  3. Concrete Operational stager : from ages 5 to 11 (children begin to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking) Children can now conserve and think logically but only with practical aids. They are no longer egocentric.
  4. Formal Operational Stage : after age 11 (development of abstract reasoning). Children develop abstract thought and can easily conserve and think logically in their mind.

Freud’s Psychosexual Theory

freud          Freud (1905) proposed that psychological development in childhood takes place in a series of fixed stages. These are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the fixation of libido (roughly translated as sexual drives or instincts) on a different area of the body. As a person grows physically certain areas of their body becomes important as sources of potential frustration (erogenous zones), pleasure or both.

Freud believed that life was built round tension and pleasure. Freud also believed that all tension was due to the build up of libido (sexual energy) and that all pleasure came from its discharge. In describing human personality development as psychosexual Freud meant to convey that what develops is the way in which sexual energy accumulates and is discharged as we mature biologically. (NB Freud used the term ‘sexual’ in a very general way to mean all pleasurable actions and thoughts).

Freud stress that the first five years of life are crucial to the formation of adult personality. The id must be controlled in order to satisfy social demands; this sets up a conflict between frustrated wishes and social norms. The ego and superego develop in order to exercise this control and direct the need for gratification into socially acceptable channels. Gratification centres of different areas of the body at different stages of growth, making the conflict at each stage psychosexual.


The Role of Conflict

Each of the psychosexual stages is associated with a particular conflict that must be resolved before the individual can successfully advance to the next stage. The resolution of each of these conflicts requires the expenditure of sexual energy and the more energy that is expended at a particular stage the more the important characteristics of that stage remain with the individual as he matures psychologically.

To explain this Freud suggested the analogy of military troops on the march. As the troops advance they are met by opposition or conflict. If they are highly successful in winning the battle (resolving the conflict) then most of the troops (libido) will be able to move on to the” next battle (stage). But the greater the difficulty encountered of any particular point the greater the need for troops to remain behind to fight and thus the fewer that will be able to go on to the next confrontation.

Frustration, Overindulgence and Fixation

Some people do not seem to be able to leave one stage and proceed on to the next. One reason for this may be that the needs of the developing individual at any particular stage may not have been adequately met in which case there is frustration. Or possibly the person’s needs may have been so well satisfied that he is reluctant to leave the psychological benefits of a particular stage in which there is overindulgence.

Both frustration and overindulgence (or any combination of the two) may lead to what psychoanalysts call fixation at a particular psychosexual stage. Fixation refers to the theoretical notion that a portion of the individual’s libido has been permanently ‘invested in a particular stage of his development. It is assumed that some libido is permanently invested in each psychosexual stage and thus each person will behave in some ways that are characteristic of infancy, or early childhood

Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development

You can remember the order of these stages by using the mnemonic: “old (oral) age (anal) pensioners (phallic) love (latent) grapes (genital).

  • Oral Stage (0-1 year)

The first stage of personality development where libido is centred in a baby’s mouth. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy libido, and thus its id demands. Which at this stage in life are oral, or mouth orientated, such as sucking, biting, and breast-feeding. . Freud said oral stimulation could lead to an oral fixation in later life. We see oral personalities all around us such as smokers, nail-biters, finger-chewers, and thumb suckers. Oral personalities engage in such oral behaviours particularly when under stress.

  • Anal Stage (1-3 years)

The libido now becomes focused on the anus and the child derives great pleasure from defecating. The child is now fully aware that they are a person in their own right and that their wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world (i.e. their ego has developed). Freud believed that this type of conflict tends to come to a head in potty training, in which adults impose restrictions on when and where the child can defecate. The nature of this first conflict with authority can determine the child’s future relationship with all forms of authority. Early or harsh potty training can lead to the child becoming an anal-retentive personality who hates mess, is obsessively tidy, punctual and respectful of authority. They can be stubborn and tight-fisted with their cash and possessions. This is all related to pleasure got from holding on to their faeces when toddlers, and their mum’s then insisting that they get rid of it by placing them on the potty until they perform! Not as daft as it sounds. The anal expulsive, on the other hand, underwent a liberal toilet-training regime during the anal stage. In adulthood the anal expulsive is the person who wants to share things with you. They like giving things away. In essence they are ‘sharing their s**t’! An anal-expulsive personality is also messy, disorganised and rebellious.

  • Phallic Stage (3 to 5 or 6 years)

Sensitivity now becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation (in both sexes) becomes a new source of pleasure. The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear which Freud called the Oedipus complex (in boys) and the Electra complex (in girls) This is resolved through the process of identification which involves the child adopting the characteristics of the same sex parent.

The most important aspect of the phallic stage is the Oedipus complex. This is one of Freud’s most controversial ideas and one that many people reject outright. The name of the Oedipus complex derives from Greek myth where Oedipus, a young man, kills his father and marries his mother. Upon discovering this he pokes his eyes out and becomes blind. This Oedipal is the generic (i.e. general) term for both Oedipus and Electra complexes.

In the young boy, the Oedipus complex or more correctly conflict, arises because the boy develops sexual (pleasurable) desires for his mother. He wants to possess his mother exclusively and get rid of his father to enable him to do so. Irrationally, the boy thinks that if his father were to find out about all this, his father would take away what he loves the most. In the phallic stage what the boy loves most is his penis. Hence the boy develops castration anxiety.

A problem the little boy then sets out to resolve by imitating, copying and joining in masculine dad-type behaviours. This is called identification, and is how the three-to-five year old boy resolves his Oedipus complex. Identification means internally adopting the values, attitudes and behaviours of another person. The consequence of this is that the boy takes on the male gender role, and adopts an ego ideal and values that become the superego.

For girls, the Oedipus or Electra complex is less than satisfactory. Briefly, the girl desires the father, but realises that she does not have a penis. This leads to the development of penis envy and the wish to be a boy. The girl resolves this by repressing her desire for her father and substituting the wish for a penis with the wish for a baby. The girl blames her mother for her ‘castrated state’ and this creates great tension. The girl then represses her feelings (to remove the tension) and identifies with the mother to take on the female gender role.

  • Latency (5 or 6 to puberty)

No further psychosexual development takes place during this stage (latent means hidden). The libido is dormant. Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed during the latent stage and sexual energy can be sublimated (re: defence mechanism) towards school work, hobbies and friendships. Much of the child’s energies arc channelled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)

What is Narcissism?

A pattern of traits and behaviors which signify infatuation and obsession with one’s self to the exclusion of all others and the egotistic and ruthless pursuit of one’s gratification, dominance and ambition.

Most narcissists (75%) are men.

NPD is one of a “family” of personality disorders (formerly known as “Cluster B”).

Other members: Borderline PD, Antisocial PD and Histrionic PD.

NPD is often diagnosed with other mental health disorders (“co-morbidity”) – or with substance abuse, or impulsive and reckless behaviors (“dual diagnosis”).

NPD is new (1980) mental health category in the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual (DSM).

There is only scant research regarding narcissism. But what there is has not demonstrated any ethnic, social, cultural, economic, genetic, or professional predilection to NPD.

It is estimated that 0.7-1% of the general population suffer from NPD.

Pathological narcissism was first described in detail by Freud. Other major contributors are: Klein, Horney, Kohut, Kernberg, Millon, Roningstam, Gunderson, Hare.

The onset of narcissism is in infancy, childhood and early adolescence. It is commonly attributed to childhood abuse and trauma inflicted by parents, authority figures, or even peers.

There is a whole range of narcissistic reactions – from the mild, reactive and transient to the permanent personality disorder.

Narcissists are either “Cerebral” (derive their narcissistic supply from their intelligence or academic achievements) – or “Somatic” (derive their narcissistic supply from their physique, exercise, physical or sexual prowess and “conquests”).

NPD is treated in talk therapy (psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioral). The prognosis for an adult narcissist is poor, though his adaptation to life and to others can improve with treatment. Medication is applied to side-effects and behaviors (such as mood or affect disorders and obsession-compulsion) – usually with some success

Havighurst identified Six Major Stages in human life covering birth to old age

 

  •   Infancy & early childhood (Birth till 6 years old)
  • Middle childhood (6-12 years old)
  • Adolescence (13-18 years old)
  • Early Adulthood (19-30 years old)
  • Middle Age (30-60years old)
  • Later maturity (60 years old and over)

From there, Havighurst recognized that each human has three sources for developmental tasks. They are:

  • Tasks that arise from physical maturation: Learning to walk, talk, control of bowel and urine, behaving in an acceptable manner to opposite sex, adjusting to menopause.
  • Tasks that arise from personal values: Choosing an occupation, figuring out ones philosophical outlook.
  • Tasks that have their source in the pressures of society: Learning to read, learning to be responsible citizen.

The developmental tasks model that Havighurst developed was age dependent and all served pragmatic functions depending on their age.

Developmental Tasks

(Ages 0-6)

  • Learning to walk. * Learning to crawl. * Learning to take solid food. * Learning to talk. * Learning to control the elimination of body wastes. * Learning sex differences and sexual modesty. * Getting ready to read. * Forming concepts and learning language to describe social and physical reality.

(Ages 6-12)

  • Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games. * Learning to get along with age mates. * Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing organism. * Learning on appropriate masculine or feminine social role. * Developing concepts necessary for everyday living. * Developing conscience, morality and a scale of values. * Achieving personal independence. * Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions.

(Ages 12-18)

  • Achieving new and more mature relations with age mates of both sexes. * Achieving a masculine or feminine social role. * Accepting one’s physique and using the body effectively. * Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults. * Preparing for marriage and family life. * Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior. * Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior.* Selecting an occupation.

(Ages 18-30)

  • Selecting a mate. * Learning to live with a partner. * Starting family. * Rearing children. * Managing home. * Getting started in occupation. * Taking on civic responsibility. * Finding a congenial social group.

(Ages 30-60)

  • Assisting teenage children to become responsible and happy adults. * Achieving adult social and civic responsibility. * Reaching and maintaining satisfactory performance in one’s occupational career. * Developing adult leisure time activities. * Relating oneself to one’s spouse as a person. * To accept and adjust to the physiological changes of middle age. * Adjusting to aging parents.

(60 and over)

  • Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health. Adjusting to retirement and reduced income. * Adjusting to death of a spouse. * Establishing an explicit affiliation with one’s age group. * Adopting and adapting social roles in a flexible way. * Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangements.

 

Sedikit mengenal TORCH

Salah satunya dengan melakukan tes laboratorium yang disebut TORCH. Yaitu pemeriksaan melalui 4 jenis tes, parasit TOxoplasma, virus Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), dan virus Herpes. Masing2 ada tes IgM dan IgG nya.dog_tired

Gimana cara membaca hasilnya?
1. Periksalah serum untuk mencari ada tidaknya IgG spesifik untuk parasit/virus TORCH. Bila hasilnya NEGATIF, berarti Anda tidak pernah terinfeksi TORCH. Bila POSITIF, berarti pernah terinfeksi. Note: (periksa Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, Anti-Rubella IgG, Anti-CMV IgG, Anti-HSV2 IgG). Tes IgG itu untuk meriksa apakah pada masa lalu si pasien pernah kena infeksi.
2. Bila IgG POSITIF, maka untuk menentukan kapan infeksi tersebut, Anda harus melakukan pemeriksaan serum untuk mencari ada tidaknya IgM parasit/virus TORCH. Tes IgM ini fungsinya untuk memeriksa apakah saat ini si pasien terinfeksi TORCH.
3. Bila IgG Positif dan IgM Negatif : Anda telah terinfeksi lebih dari setahun yang lalu. Saat ini anda mungkin telah mengembangkan kekebalan terhadap parasit itu. Anda tidak perlu khawatir untuk hamil.
4. Bila IgG Positif dan IgM juga Positif: Anda tengah mengalami infeksi dalam 2 tahun terakhir. (mungkin pula ada false pada hasil IgM). Anda harus catat berapa angka IgM tersebut.
5. Selanjutnya Anda harus melakukan lagi pemeriksaan IgM (kalau perlu sekalian IgG) setelah 2 minggu dari pemeriksaan pertama.
6. Bila IgM tetap Positif atau malah naik angkanya, berarti anda sedang terinfeksi TORCH. Sebaiknya anda sembuhkan dulu infeksi ini baru kemudian mulai hamil.